As the error says, the cause is a Microsoft program error. The solution is usually either to roll back to a previous version of Microsoft Visual C++ or update it with the latest patch. You can use Windows Updater to update it.
Another thing you could try is to duplicate or Place files instead of copy/pasting them. Particularly images. In the meantime, just fill out as much as you can on your homework, make spaces for where you would put the stuff you can't copy, and come back to it later when you find a solution. If there's a lot of text you need to copy from one document to the other, try copying to another program first (like Word) and copy from there. Otherwise type it out yourself. Yes, you may have to spend some extra time on this.
Duplicate: Go to Edit > Duplicate, or hold the Alt key while clicking and dragging an image frame. Place: Go to File > Place or press the shortcut Control+D. A navigation window will pop up for you to select the file you want to place in your document.
Doesn't windows automatically update it or does that work differently?
Depends on your personal settings. Updates can be made automatic or manual. If you set it to automatic, you have to check to make sure you got the update. It's possible your computer tried to update it at one point and it failed. If it were corrupted somehow, you would need to do a roll back and then update it again.
It won't show up anywhere in your Programs folder if that's what you were thinking. You will find a full list of the installs by going to your Control Panel > Programs and Features > Uninstall or Change a program. The last update version I had was 10.0.40219.
Go to Microsoft's website, find a download of the latest Visual C++ Redistributable for your computer, uninstall the current version(s) you have and install the one you downloaded. Or you can uninstall the current version you have and run Windows Updater to see if it will find the latest version on its own.