This issue will get even more complicated in that we won't achieve this level of artificial intelligence immediately. We'll advance through a lot of murky, gray areas before we get to the point where we have robots with "perfect" (as you describe) A.I.
So, I think a lot of these issues will be at least somewhat settled by the time we're this advanced. But, not without a long history of drawn-out politics..
If we ever got to that stage of making a robot look exactly like a human, then they would not be accepted as as sentient until scientists found a way of uploading a 'born' human's mind into the robot mind. That would be the one and only time that they would be accepted. Real human mind in a robot body. You could just imagine Mars being populated by beings such as this. No need for special suits or even needing to breathe. Yes, been watching too much 'Avatar'
Yey! An ethics question; time for me to exercise what I learned from my ethics class.
Ethics is invented only be the very beings that thought of them: humans. The more human-like something is, the more we consider ourselves close to it. All the more do we want to treat it the same way we treat ourselves. However, I will limit robot rights because they are still inorganic beings. I wouldn't give a robot the exact same rights a human because it will never be human. It is a robot, it is sentient and it is human-like BUT it is not a human being. There are some things it can and can't do.
But I think, because it's a robot, there is a larger danger of abuse since simple rewiring or mussing up of circuitry can affect this AI. It's still all silica and metal after all
True, but it's not so hard to "re-wire" humans, when you think about it. A little electrical stimulation here, a little hormones there, we've found ways to manipulate human emotions and thoughts as well.
Yes but humans have a higher capability of introspect and thus a way to realize things and behave differently depending on that. Robots are limited by the quality of their materials and what their memory banks have stored. Humans are made of materials that constantly adjust and affects our hormones and responses. Even if we are also manipulable, machines are still easier to manipulate.
Think about it: Psychology is a science that takes years to master because of the many things still unsure about the human psyche, etc. Computer science also takes years to master but its application is straightforward.
Ever think the Turing test itself might be flawed? Humans have multiple states of consciousness that make us who we are. There many layers to human sentience such: Subconscious, instinct, ego, higher self, and dream states that create altered consciousness. A robot that could simulate happiness or suffering would not be anywhere close to being human.