Yes, the FOV is the same for the focal lengh on a zoom as it is on a prime. The only time there is a difference in the FOV is when either lens is used on a full-frame sensor versus an APS-C crop sensor.
50mm focal length lenses are considered normal for full frame (around the size of 35mm I think )
The smaller your sensor the less of the lens image circle you use increasing the effective focal length making a 50mm more like a telephoto.
A 50 mm prime will give you the same view as a zoom at 50mm.
Yes primes are much better than zoom lenses because they are tuned perfectly for the focal length , zoom lenses by comparison are a compromise of all focal lengths with in its range and are much more prone to various forms of distortion especially chromatic aberration, given zooms have improved a lot in the last few years but so has lens technology all over including primes.
Prime does not mean it has to be a 50mm and if it is to long for you then go for a 40mm 30mm or what ever is available for your camera.
If you want close focusing you may need to look into a macro lens.
One prime is never enough , for my 6x6 medium format I have a 40mm, 50mm, 80mm, 110mm(macro),150mm and a 500mm, there was a zoom made for this but it is very rare and not really of much use with a zoom range from 80mm to 140mm on my 35mm I have a 24mm, 50mm and a 100mm and I never did get a zoom for that camera.
Right, this is where it gets a bit tricky. The angle is the only thing that changes. The DoF, focusing distance and magnification are all the same no matter what size sensor you're using.
Which is why the preferred term for it is crop factor rather than something like lens multiplier.
You'll get the same exact field of view and all the rest in either case at that 50mm length, it's just that the 50mm F1.8 is probably going to be faster. Just make sure you get a good copy, I've heard bad things about Canon's 50mm F1.8, but I've not seen any problems with it.
Nikon's is quite a bit more expensive, but that's in large part because they have a better motor on it. (Just FYI when you're wondering why Nikon users get screwed there, obviously, you don't really get a choice)