With anything written, it's a lot easier to incorporate advice than in something drawn/painted/etc. So yes. Even though the advice I get I look up or find on TV Tropes, I still try to use it the best I can, doing editing whenever necessary to make a story better. Granted I don't write publicly much. Even if I should.
Probably the straighten out the plot advice from you on the only Screamprompt I've completed to date. It's being applied to my novel in progress, and working rather well. I've gone from confusing to plot wrenches. Short stories, however, I'm still sinking. Mainly because I don't write definitive plots for them.
use my plot arc for your short stories (it's in the Workshopping the Rasp journal at the bottom over at my page). it will work for a short story from 1000 words on up. i use them every time. it is guaranteed.
Depending on what the piece of advice is and if I have asked for it or not I use the advice. As soon as possible. Or I do some research on the advice and see what more people think. Often I get advice because I search it out. I won't search it if I won't use it. And if it just gets pushed on me it's a 50-50 shot as to if I will use the advice or not. I am not as easy about advice being forced on me.
What I do is I figure out whether the person is genuinely trying to be helpful or if they have some other less pleasant reason for saying something(Some people have given me harsh and undeserved criticisms because I've left constructive ones on their work. Their only aim is "payback".). When it's the former I evaluate whether or not I agree by rereading my writing and if needed, writing sample paragraphs with and without the improvement to see the difference.
Most of my critique lately has come from myself. The more I write and the more often I do it, the more I start to see patterns my word choice and sentence structure. That is, I rely on habitual words even when another word might have been a better fit to that particular scene. I'm also trying to vary my sentence structure a little so that at least it isn't so obvious.
Oldest one on the book: Show, don't tell. I didn't understand it like I thought I did, until I met this amazing teacher who rephrased it for me: Create and atmosphere, but don't say anything. It was really earth-shattering. I realized that I didn't have to explain myself, and let the reader make his own interpretation. I was doing the contrary but I hadn't noticed until he told me that... And that's it.